Superdiversity Stocktake: Implications for Business, Government and New Zealand
Scroll down to read summaries of individual sections and download separately from the 3rd of November.
Introduction and Summary of findings
This section sets out why the Centre undertook the Superdiversity Stocktake: Implications for Business, Government and New Zealand, and summarises its key findings and recommendations. It also includes the foreword, methodology and acknowledgments.
What is superdiversity?
This section sets out the demographic evidence that New Zealand is already a superdiverse society, particularly Auckland. With reference to statistics from the latest Census and other evidence-based research, the long-term demographic implications of superdiversity are canvassed to show the acceleration of New Zealand’s cultural evolution. Case studies and survey results from New Zealand’s superdiverse communities and sub-groups are included on the following subjects:
- Superdiversity in Auckland;
- Superdiversity in Wellington;
- Superdiversity in Christchurch;
- Long-term demographic projections for New Zealand;
- New Zealand’s accelerated cultural evolution, including discussion of intermarriage and the role of young people (particularly the 1.5 generation);
- Asian New Zealanders, including findings from a survey with New Zealand Asian Leaders on the views of Asian New Zealanders regarding New Zealand’s superdiversity; and
- Pacific New Zealanders, including findings from a survey with COMET and Raise Pasifika on Pacific perspectives of superdiversity.
Implications of superdiversity for business
This section sets out the key risks, rewards and opportunities from superdiversity for business, such as the diversity dividend and the risks of increased discrimination, business conflict due to cultural differences, and challenges to New Zealand’s transparent business culture, based on academic and policy-based studies, statistics and business practice in New Zealand and overseas.
This includes case studies on:
- New Zealand businesses leading the pack in adapting to, and capitalising off, New Zealand’s superdiversity;
- Business investor migrants, ethnic businesses and migrant entrepreneurs;
- The potential benefits of superdiversity for Maori business;
- The impact of superdiversity on regional New Zealand, including on the rural sector; and
This section also includes findings from the following surveys:
- Surveys on the experience of small to medium-sized businesses in New Zealand, in partnership with various Chambers of Commerce, regarding the impact of superdiversity on their workforce and customer base;
- A survey of HR managers in larger organisations, together with EY, about the challenges they are encountering as a result of New Zealand’s superdiversity transition; and
- A qualitative research study with Xero on small to medium-sized businesses’ views of migrant workers.
Finally, this section includes key recommendations on how to create a business fit for the future, and the need for government to keep social capital high so that business can obtain the financial capital brought by superdiversity.
Examples of policy challenges posed by superdiversity
This section includes examples of policy challenges posed by superdiversity in the following areas:
- Immigration law and policy;
- The compulsory school system;
- Export education;
- Language policy;
- The health system, including the recognition of the health needs of minorities, cultural and religious attitudes towards best medical practice, and cultural competence in patient care and staff relations;
- The criminal justice system, including the relevance of racial, religious and cultural considerations at trial and sentencing, and the needs of a diverse prison population;
- Family and child law and policy, including issues around marriage, adoption and female genital mutilation;
- Burial rights and death; and
- Animal rights law.
It makes recommendations as to reforms that should be made to ensure that New Zealand continues to capture the diversity dividend.
Legal implications of superdiversity
This section outlines New Zealand’s legal framework to promote minority rights and protect the superdiverse from discrimination. The section covers:
- The grounds of discrimination under the Human Rights Act 1993, including religious belief, ethical belief, colour, race, or ethnic or national origins, and the offences of exciting racial hostility and inciting racial disharmony.
- The protection of minority rights under the Employment Relation Act 2000 (‘ERA’) with respect to time-off, worship requirements during work-hours, discrimination on the basis of religion and ethnicity in the workplace, and the remedies available under the ERA.
- The rights protected by the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 (‘NZBORA’) and the nature (positive of negative) of those rights, including potential claims that could be brought under NZBORA for the protection of minority rights and their likelihood of success. There is also a discussion of legal pluralism in New Zealand and the interface of NZBORA with protection afforded by the Treaty of Waitangi for Maori.
This part considers in detail how the legal framework operates in practice, and the nature of the protection afforded to minority groups, with reference to domestic and international case law. This section also includes recommendations as to how the legal framework can be strengthened to provide better protection for our superdiverse communities.
Impact of Superdiversity on Central Government
This section sets out key conclusions on the impact of superdiversity on government, including in particular the overall speed of the Government’s response, investing in the diversity dividend, the implications of superdiversity for the Treaty relationship as the Crown’s face changes, and the need for a formal multicultural policy on a bicultural base.
This section also includes a stocktake of how Government departments and agencies are responding to the challenges of superdiversity. The Centre interviewed Chief Executives and senior managers from almost every public service department to discuss their superdiversity initiatives and progress on meeting the needs of New Zealand’s increasingly diverse population. This section includes an assessment of how successful those organisations have been at adjusting to superdiversity and the needs of the new New Zealand.